This session introduces the key frameworks, terminology and indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation. It starts with the introduction of the ‘Logical Framework’ and its Log Frame, which helps to clarify the objectives of any project, program, or policy and improve the quality of M&E design. Key M&E terminology such as Inputs, Activities, Outputs, Outcomes and Impacts are explained. Two groups of indicators are defined: SMART and SPICED. These are intended as checklists for assessing the construction of indicators.
Indicators used for gathering performance information should be SMART:
– S-Specific: Reflect what the project intends to change and are able to assess performance.
– M-Measurable: Must be precisely defined – measurement and interpretation is unambiguous. Provide objective data, independent of who is collecting data.
– A-Attainable: Achievable by the project and sensitive to change. Feasible time and money to collect data using chosen indicators. Available at a reasonable cost.
– R-Relevant: Relevant to the project in question.
– T-Time bound: Describes when a certain change is expected.
Indicators used when collecting subjective information should be SPICED:
– S-Subjective: Contributors have a special position or experience that gives them unique insights which may yield a high return on the evaluator’s time.
– P-Participatory: Indicators should be developed together with those best placed to assess them. This means involving the ultimate beneficiaries, or local staff and other stakeholders.
– I-Interpretable: Locally defined indicators may be meaningless to other stakeholders, so they often need to be explained.
– C-Cross-checked: The validity of assessment needs to be cross-checked, by comparing different indicators and progress, and by using different informants, methods, and researchers.
– E-Empowering: The process of setting and assessing indicators should be empowering in itself and allow groups and individuals to reflect critically on their changing situation.
– D-Disaggregated: There should be a deliberate effort to seek out different indicators from a range of groups, especially men and women.