D.3.1. Inventory and cataloguing of existing documentation
Usually, an inventory is a first step in data collection. It contains a first analysis of existing internal and external information on the PPD. Usually conducted by an external consultant, the inventory will lead to an inception report for the M&E process.
The analysis needs to be focused on the basic questions to be addressed in the M&E exercise defined in step one above. It offers an opportunity to identify and refine sub-questions and corresponding indicators, along with their sources of verification.
The focus in the inventory is on a review of inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts, based upon the information available in existing documents and archived material. The information can be further analyzed using a small set of key performance criteria:
- Relevance: addressing the relationship between outputs and outcomes on the one hand, and
stakeholders’ needs and expectations on the other.
- Efficiency: addressing the relationship between the inputs and outputs or activities, in
particular how much input is required for the outputs.
- Effectiveness: addressing the relationship between the outputs and outcomes – that is, to what degree do the output activities lead to expected outcomes.
- Sustainability: Addressing the relationship between the outcomes and impact of the PPD and
the continuation of activities enabled by continued provision of inputs or the identification of new alternative inputs.
- Quality of the PPD process: Measuring the degree of appreciation of stakeholders of the quality of the partnership and existing measures to ensure quality control and improvement.
If necessary, this list might be extended with other aspects and/or performance criteria.
Here is a checklist for conducting this inventory:
|Is there sufficient
information available in
written material? (Yes/No)
|Methods and tools
needed to find additional
|Relevance (relationship between
outputs and outcomes and the
needs of stakeholders)
|Efficiency (relationship between
inputs and outputs)
|Effectiveness (relationship between
output and outcome)
|Sustainability (relationship between
outcome and impact and future
|Quality of the process of the PPD|
|Other aspects specific to the PPD’s
Using this matrix, one can more easily identify where more in-depth research is needed and the tools for undertaking that research. Furthermore, the matrix can be used to make a final check if the M&E process will meet the requirements mentioned in the ToR.
It might, in some cases, lead to changes in the ToR when the matrix shows that certain information requirements cannot possibly be met through the M&E process.
D.3.2. Baseline, benchmark and control-group research
Also taking the form of a desk study, this stage constitutes a more in-depth review of PPD-related documents, including looking at the PPD’s context.
Here is a list of possible relevant documents that might be available:
|Internal documents of the
|Baseline data on the context
of the PPD
|Original program document||PRSP, private sector
|Research on PPD processes in
|Mission statement, mandate,
|Policy papers of relevant
|Research on private sector
development in localities
where no PPD-process has
|Rules and regulations||Economic surveys||M&E reports on PPD processes,
either in the same locality or
elsewhere, where similar
initiatives with similar
objectives and indicators have
|Periodic planning documents||Information from bureaus for
|Control group experiments as
an element in the M&E process
(NB: this will greatly increase
|Periodic reporting documents||Enterprise surveys|
|Minutes of meetings||World Bank’s Doing Business
|Existing internal or external
|Brochures and publications|
It is obvious that the level of effort and costs required to obtain information will increase drastically with each category. In many countries, no reliable baseline studies and statistical data are available.
In most cases it is likely that no systematic benchmark or control-group related information is available. Benchmarking and control group information is likely to require specific instruments to be developed in the M&E process design, and a corresponding budget. Although such experiments are interesting, budget limitations will often preclude them.
D.3.3. PPD surveys
Surveys and questionnaires are an effective way to generate quick information on the opinions of target groups, but usually require a significant amount of time and resources. It is therefore recommended to use standardized surveys, which can be customized by adding or deleting specific questions.
The use of standardized surveys and questions has the additional benefit of enabling comparison of results of PPDs in different contexts.
In conducting and customizing surveys one should take the following aspects into account:
|Open or closed
|Amount of time
that can be
respondents to fill
|Digital or paper||
|Number of desired
|Level of effort that
is realistic for
|Rolling out the